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World’s Largest lake

The largest lake of the Earth: the Caspian sea-lake (376 km2), Upper (82,4 km2), Victoria (68 km2), lake Huron (59.6 thousand km2), mi (58 km2). The deepest lake on the planet — Baikal (1620 m), followed by Tanganyika (1470 m), the Caspian sea-lake (1025 m), Nyasa (706 m) and Issyk-Kul lake (668 m).

The greatest lake on Earth — the Caspian sea is located in the hinterland of Eurasia, it contains 78 thousand km3 of water — more than 40% of the total lacustrine waters of the world and the area superior to the Black sea. The Caspian sea is a lake called due to the fact that it possesses many marine characteristics — huge size, large volume of water, strong storms, and specific hydrochemical regime. From North to South, the Caspian sea stretches for about 1200 km from West to East 200-450 km In origin it is part of the ancient Pontic salted lake that existed 5-7 million years ago. In the ice age from Arctic seas into the Caspian sea has penetrated the seal, sheefish, salmon, small crustaceans; in the sea-the lake and some Mediterranean species of fish that remained from those times, when the Caspian sea was connected to the Black and Mediterranean seas .

The water level in the Caspian sea is below sea level and periodically varies; the reasons for these fluctuations are not yet enough clear. And change the shape of the Caspian sea. In the beginning of XX century the sea level was approximately -26 m (relative to sea level ), in 1972 it was recorded lowest position for the last 300 years — -29 m, then the sea level of the lake slowly began to rise and now stands at about -27,9 M. Caspian sea had about 70 names: Hyrcanian, khvalyn, Khazar, Sarai, Derbent, and others. Its modern name it received in honor of the ancient tribes of the Caspians (horse breeders), who lived in the I century BC on the North-West coast.

The deepest lake of the world Baikal (1620 m) lies on the South of Eastern Siberia. It is located at an altitude of 456 m above sea level, its length is 636 km and the greatest width in the Central part of 81 km There are several versions of the origin of the lake, for example, from the Turkic Bai Kul — “rich lake” or from the Mongolian Baigal — Dalai “large lake”. Baikal contains 27 Islands, the largest of which is Olkhon. Flow into the lake about 300 rivers and streams, and flows only the Angara river. Baikal is a very ancient lake, approximately 20-25 million years. 40% of the plants and 85% of animal species inhabiting lake Baikal are endemic (i.e. found only in this lake ). The volume of water in lake Baikal about 23 thousand km3, or 20% of the world’s and 90% of Russian reserves of fresh water. Baikal’s water is unique — unusually transparent, pure and saturated with oxygen. The lake is home to 58 species of fish (omul, whitefish, grayling, trout, sturgeon, etc.) and lives typically sea mammal — Baikal seal.

In Eastern North America in the basin of the St. Lawrence river are the Great lakes: Upper, Huron, Michigan, Erie and Ontario. They are staggered, the difference in height of the first four does not exceed 9 m, and only the lower, Ontario, located almost 100 feet below Erie. The lakes are interconnected by short and rapid rivers abounding in water. On the Niagara river, which connects lake Erie with lake Ontario, was formed Niagara falls (height about 50 m ). Great lakes — the greatest accumulation of fresh water on Earth (22,7 thousand km3). They were formed during the melting of the huge ice sheet in the Northern part of the North American continent and throughout its history has repeatedly changed shape. Northern shores are rocky, precipitous, and very picturesque, and the southern and South-Eastern mainly low, clayey, and sandy. Great lakes shores are densely populated, there are powerful industrial areas and major US cities: Chicago, Milwaukee, Buffalo, Cleveland, Detroit, and also the second largest city of Canada — Toronto. To bypass the rapids of the rivers connecting the lakes, built canals and created a continuous water route sea vessels from the Great lakes into the Atlantic ocean stretching about 3 thousand km and a depth of not less than 8 m, accessible to large ships.

The African lake Tanganyika — the longest on the planet, it was formed in a tectonic depression in the area of East African faults. The maximum depth of 1470 m Tanganyika is the second deepest lake in the world after lake Baikal. The coastline stretches for 1900 km, the border of four African States — Burundi, Zambia, Tanzania and Republic of the Congo. Tanganyika is a very old lake, it is home to about 170 endemic species of fish. Living organisms inhabit the lake to a depth of about 200 meters and below in the water contains large amounts of hydrogen sulfide. Rocky shores of the Tanganyika indented by numerous bays and coves.

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