Ethiopia – country Information
Ethiopia – a landlocked state in North-Eastern Africa, located in the horn of Africa. It shares borders with Eritrea, Djibouti, Somalia, Kenya, South Sudan and Sudan.
Area – 1 104 million square km.
The geography and the topography of the country is extremely diverse: from the mountains to the North, with peaks exceeding 4500 m above sea level (the highest point is mount RAS Dashen), and the plains and valleys below sea level (Danakilia depression). From the North-East to South-West the country is crossed by the Great African fault, is marked by a chain of large lakes.
The country is rich in hydro resources. The largest rivers – the Blue Nile (Abbay), the PSA-Shebele, awash. Annual river runoff is estimated 101.5 billion cubic m. the Largest lake Tana is a natural reservoir control in the upper reaches of the Blue Nile.
Minerals are represented by reserves of gold, platinum, Nickel, tantalum, lithium, copper, lead, zinc, uranium, iron, precious and semiprecious stones, salt, potassium. There are natural gas reserves, exploration for hydrocarbons continues.
The climate of the country, located in the subequatorial zone was diverse. Annual rainfall varies from 300 to 2250 mm, depending on altitude and terrain. Traditionally there are two main seasons: the season of the “big” rains (June to September) and the season of small rains (February – March). However, the mode of their deposition are uncertain, fraught with natural disasters (droughts and floods).
With a population of over 90 million people (estimate ), the level of urbanization of 17 %. Annual population growth rate is 3.2%, which is one of the highest rates in sub-Saharan Africa.
The country is home to over 100 nationalities and ethnic groups, speaking 80 languages and dialects of the Semitic-Hamitic, and Cushitic linguistic groups nilushi. Most numerous among them are the Oromo, Amhara, Tegrity, Somali, Sidamo, gurage, wolaita, afar.
The official language is Amharic (in accordance with the Constitution, has the status of a working language).
Administrative divisions: Ethiopia is divided into nine regions, formed mainly by the principle of ethnic federalism: afar, Amhara, Benishangul Gumuz, Gambella, Harari, Oromia, Somalia, Tigray, Region and peoples of the South. To the status regions of the equivalent two cities – Addis Ababa and dire Dawa.
National holiday – the Day of victory of democratic forces on may 28.
The capital is Addis Ababa (population estimated around 5 million), founded in 1886, Political, economic and cultural center, where about half of the total urban population of the country. Here are the Central public authorities, publishing major Newspapers, the Addis Ababa University and several higher and secondary educational institutions, the largest theaters and museums. In the capital hosted the headquarters of the African Union, UNECA, representative offices of many international organizations, embassies, over 110 States, in connection with which Addis Ababa is often called the “diplomatic capital of Africa”.
Largest cities – Addis Ababa, Bahir Dar, Mekele, dire Dawa, Harar.
The principal religions are Christianity Monophysite persuasion. Islam is mainly Sunni, Protestant denominations of Christianity, Catholicism and traditional religious cults.
The President Is Mulato Teshome Virtue.
Prime Minister Hailemariam Desalegn the Bosch.